Saturday, August 24, 2013

Tuesday, January 01, 2013

Universalglot Dictionary, Page 1

VerbBibel UniversalglotEnglishGerman Page001

A

Abat = Abbot | Abt
Abatstan = Abbey | Abtei
Abbasen = To abase, lower | Niederschlagen, sinken
Abbasten = To pull down, to beat down | Abschlagen, niederreissen
Abbasthaus = Slaughterhouse | Schlachthaus
Abbilden = To figure, represent | Abbilden
Abdikten, abdikaten = To abdicate | Eine Würde, ein Amt niederlegen
Abdukten = To carry away, refuse | Wegführen, abweisen
Abend = Evening, west | Abend
Abendeten = To sup | Abendessen
El abendeten = Supper |Das Abendessen
Abesant = Absent | Abwesend
Abesanten = To absent | Sich wegbegeben
Abesantnes = Absence |Abwesenheit
Abfal = Falling off, fall, defection, loss, clippings |Abfall
Abfalen = To decay, abandon, fall | Abfallen
Abfiren = To fire off, discharge a firearm |Abfeuern
Abflus = Running down | Abfluss
Abgraden = To descend | Heruntergehen


Thursday, December 27, 2012

Amerysk Pronunciation

Amerysk Pronunciation

From 'Snaekk and Skryf Amerysk' by Paal Filssunu, describing a conlang, Amerysk, constructed by Paal Filssunu for the use of Odinists/Asatruar/Norse Pagans.

Letters in the Amerysk language are not put in alphabetical order as in most European tongues, but are arranged in the pattern of the older Northern Futhark.
There are officially 26 letters in this futhark, also known as 'staves' (staefas). There are some forms in the 'runic' form of stave writing which combine similar sounds and do not stand out as the Roman alphabet's series of clustered phonetics.

VOWELSAmerysk uses eight main vowels: A, E, I, O, U, Y, AE, Ø
These vowels possess single phonetic pronunciations. In the course of speaking some natural vowel lengthenings occur. These are either shown in the ( )'s for proper pronunciation, or they use lengthened written vowel forms: A becomes AA, E becomes EI, EY or Y and so forth.

PRONUNCIATION:
A is pronounced as in Tall (ah) O is pronounced as in Off, Hot (aw)
E
is pronounced as in Set (eh) U is pronounced as OO in Book (uh)
I
is pronounced as in It, Stick (ih) Y is pronounced as EE in Green (ee)
AE
is pronouced as A in Sack, Laugh Ø is pronounced as EW--- similar to German ö and Danish ø

EXAMPLES:Stagga
(stahgg-ah) stag Thurk (thuhrk) through
Swefan (swehf-ahn) to sleep Ys (eess) ice
Swift (swihft) fast, swift Wraeth (rath) wrath
Worm (wawrm) reptile, serpent (bew) village, town

The basic sounds of the vowels don't change, unlike some languages which assign up to four different sounds to a letter, or stave.
LENGTHENED VOWELS

AA (aw)
as used in Waald (forest) AW (ahw) as used in Blaw! (Blow!)
AAW (aw) as used in Laaw (low) UW (ooh) as used in Bluw (blue)
EI, EY (ay) as used in Ey (island) AEW (ae+oo) as used in Maew (seagull)
and personal name Sweyn
IW (yew)
as used in Tiw (Tyr) ØW (ew) as used in Fløwan (to flow)


CONSONANTS:Amerysk uses sixteen consonants--- also, there are several consonants sounds produced by clustering. All consonants will be shown in the examples below:

MAIN CONSONANTS: As used in the English alphabet order---
B, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, T, W, and X

Note: C, Q, V, and Z are not used as standard letters unless they are needed in the spelling of names, or words fron languages using these letters (Caledon, Quinn, Viking, Zeus and so forth.)
Of these above mentioned consonants, the following are pronounced very much as in English, and require no special learning:
B, D, F, H, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, T, W, and X

G
is given two pronunciations according to its place in a word:
as G in the word gød (gewd) 'good', used initially, it is pronounced hard--- but when used in the middle or at the end of a word--- such as fugl (foo-khil) 'bird' or graeg (grakh) 'gray'. The G is spoken as a German 'CH' sound (KH).
GG is always pronounced hard as in Egg.
J is always pronounced as Y: Ja (yah) 'yes'.
NG is always pronounced as 'ING' in wing--- never pronounce it like the English NG in 'FING-GER' (finger).
TH is pronounced two ways--- as the hard [voiced] TH in THIS and as the soft [unvoiced] TH in THIN. TH requires memorization, and throughout this series for pronunciation purposes,
TH= hard sound TH=soft sound
KJ/TJ are normally pronounced as CH in CHEERS
SJ/SKJ
are pronouced as SH

This information, from the book 'Snaekk and Skryf Amerysk' by Paal Filssunu, is provided with all  respect to the acheivements and rights of Amerysk creator Paal-Eirik Filsunu. I have also published this info on a web site The Ameryske Tunga. (I am putting it up here to prevent the information from being lost if the web site goes down.)

Tuesday, December 25, 2012

Word-Building in Universalglot

As in Esperanto, suffixes are used to build words in Universalglot. The feminine suffix is -in. Here are some examples of its use:

queen = rexin
man = man
woman = manin
boy = maniet
girl = manietin
virile = manli
feminine = maninli

There was no plural form for nouns. So 'manin' could mean 'woman' or 'women'.

Though many Universalglot words were of Latin/Romance language origin there were also others that were of Germanic origin, from languages like English or German. Here are some Universalglot words of Germanic origin:

Send = sende
Yes = jes
Dog = hund
House = haus
Hand = hand
Help = help
Warm = varm
Winter = vinter
Wound = vund
Will = vil

Verbs had the following endings:
infinitive: -en
present tense: -e
past tense: -ed
future tense: -rai
conditional: -rais

Source: Listserv/Auxlang Pirro's Universal Glot by Leo J. Moser

Facebook Page: Universalglot - Jean Pirro

Kial Mi Amas Universalglot/Why I love Universalglot

En libro pri Esperanto, mi legis pri aliaj konstruitaj lingvoj. Unu el ili estas Universalglot. Mi legas ti chiu:

In a book about Esperanto, I read about other constructed languages. One of them is Universalglot. I read this: 

Men senior, I sende evos un gramatik e un verb-bibel de un nuov glot nomed universal glot. In futur, I scriptrai evos semper in dit glot. I pregate evos responden ad me in dit self glot.

Bela lingvo! Beautiful language!

Esperanto traduko: ”Mia sinjoro, mi sendas al vi gramatikon kaj vortaron de nova lingvo nomata universala lingvo. En estonteco mi skribados al vi ĉiam en ĉi tiu lingvo. Mi petas vin respondi al mi en la sama lingvo.”

English translation: 

"Sir, I send you a grammar and dictionary of a new language called universal language (universal glot). In the future I will write to you always in this language. I ask you to respond to me in the same language."
 

Facebook page Universalglot: Jean Pirro

Monday, December 24, 2012

Universalglot: 1868 International Language

Universalglot is an international auxiliary language published by French linguist Jean Pirro in 1868--- predating both Volapük and Esperanto. Pirro gave the language 7000 basic words and numerous prefixes allowing a considerable vocabulary.

Pirro's book is now no longer in print and is not, the last time I checked, available online. There is only a web page (in Universalglot?) called Le glot universal which describes the language at: http://www.datapacrat.com/True/LANG/SOLRESOL/Comparot/ug%20main.html

This is a pity since the language is easily comprehensible to those familiar with the major European languages.

Here is a 'konversatsion' in Universalglot, from the Wikipedia article on Universalglot:

Ben dai, Meni senior, i ese inkanted reinkontra evos, i habe vide evos in London, e ditdai nos finde enos in Skotland, dikt me ex ke land vos ese.

Un ex enos ese ruser e du ese italier e el quatli ese deutsch; ma nos pote toti parlen insamel, den nos parle el universal glot.

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Biblia Legado: 16 Nov. 2011

(Esperanto)
2 Makabeoj 7:1, 20-31

1 Okazis, ke oni kaptis sep fratojn kune kun la patrino. La reĝo volis per vipado kaj skurĝado devigi ilin manĝi la malpermesitan porkaĵon.

20 Ekstreme admirinda estis la patrino, kaj ŝi meritas resti memorata. Ŝi vidis en unu tago perei siajn sep filojn kaj ŝi toleris tion senŝancele, dank' al sia fido je la Sinjoro.

21 Plena de noblaj sentoj, ĉiun el ili ŝi admonis en la gepatra lingvo, kaj sian virinan karakteron ŝi plifortigis per vira kuraĝo. Ŝi diris al ili:

22 Mi ne scias, kiel vi estiĝis en mia ventro, kaj ne mi donacis al vi spiron kaj vivon, kaj ne mi formis harmonian tutaĵon el viaj membroj,

23 sed la Kreinto de la mondo: Li efektivigis la estiĝon de la homo kaj de ĉiuj estaĵoj. Li redonos al vi en Sia kompatemo la spiron kaj la vivon, kiujn vi nun ne ŝparas pro amo al Lia leĝo.

24 Antioĥo kredis, ke ŝi primokas lin, kaj suspektis en ŝiaj vortoj ofendon. Nur la plej juna frato ankoraŭ vivis. Lin li provis konvinki, ne nur per vortoj, sed ankaŭ per ĵuro, ke li faros lin riĉa kaj feliĉa, se li malobservos la prapatrajn kutimojn; li ankaŭ konsideros lin kiel sian amikon kaj konfidos al li altajn postenojn.

25 Kiam la junulo tute ne priatentis tion, la reĝo petis la patrinon, ke ŝi konvinku la knabon por saviĝi.

26 Nur post longaj insistoj ŝi akceptis konvinki la filon.

27 Sed kliniĝinte super li, ŝi primokis la teruran tiranon kaj diris en la gepatra lingvo: Filo mia, kompatu min. Dum naŭ monatoj mi portis vin en la ventro, dum tri jaroj mi mamnutris vin, mi flegis kaj edukis vin ĝis tiu aĝo, kiun nun vi havas.

28 Mi petegas vin, mia infano, rigardu la ĉielon kaj la teron kaj kion ili enhavas, kaj sciu, ke Dio kreis tion el nenio, kaj simile ekestis la homa gento.

29 Ne timu ĉi ekzekutiston, sed montru vin inda je viaj fratoj kaj akceptu la morton, por ke mi reakiru vin kun viaj fratoj en la tago de la kompatemo de Dio.

30 Apenaŭ ŝi finis paroli, kiam diris la junulo: Kion vi atendas? Mi ne obeas la ordonojn de la reĝo, sed ja la ordonojn de la leĝo, kiun niaj prapatroj ricevis de Moseo.

31 Kaj vi, kiu estigis ĉiujn ĉi malfeliĉojn por la Hebreoj, vi ne eskapos la manojn de Dio.

Luko 19:11-28

11 Kaj kiam oni aŭdis tion, li parolis ankoraŭ parabolon, ĉar li estis proksime al Jerusalem, kaj oni supozis, ke la regno de Dio tuj aperos.

12 Li do diris:Unu nobelo forvojaĝis en malproksiman landon, por ricevi al si regnon, kaj reveni.

13 Kaj vokinte al si dek siajn servistojn, li donis al ili dek min'ojn, kaj diris al ili:Negocadu, ĝis mi revenos.

14 Sed liaj regnanoj lin malamis, kaj sendis delegitaron post li, dirante:Ni ne volas, ke tiu viro reĝu super ni.

15 Kaj kiam li revenis, ricevinte la regnon, li ordonis voki al li tiujn servistojn, al kiuj li donis la monon, por ke li sciiĝu, kiom ili gajnis per negocado.

16 Kaj venis la unua, kaj diris:Sinjoro, via min'o produktis dek min'ojn.

17 Kaj li diris al li:Bonege, bona servisto; ĉar vi estis fidela en tre malgranda afero, havu aŭtoritaton super dek urboj.

18 Kaj venis la dua, kaj diris:Sinjoro, via min'o faris kvin min'ojn.

19 Li diris ankaŭ al tiu:Vi ankaŭ estu super kvin urboj.

20 Kaj alia venis, kaj diris:Sinjoro, jen via min'o, kiun mi konservis, flankemetitan en viŝtuko;

21 ĉar mi vin timis, ĉar vi estas homo severa; vi prenas tion, kion vi ne demetis, kaj rikoltas tion, kion vi ne semis.

22 Li diris al li:El via propra buŝo mi vin juĝos, vi malbona servisto. Vi sciis, ke mi estas homo severa, kiu prenas tion, kion mi ne demetis, kaj rikoltas tion, kion mi ne semis;

23 kial do vi ne donis mian monon en bankon, por ke, reveninte, mi postulu ĝin kun procento?

24 Kaj li diris al la apudstarantoj:Forprenu de li la min'on, kaj donu ĝin al tiu, kiu havas la dek min'ojn.

25 (Kaj ili diris al li:Sinjoro, li havas dek min'ojn.)

26 Mi diras al vi, ke al ĉiu, kiu havas, estos donite; kaj for de tiu, kiu ne havas, estos prenita eĉ tio, kion li havas.

27 Cetere tiujn miajn malamikojn, kiuj ne volis, ke mi reĝu super ili, konduku ĉi tien, kaj mortigu ilin antaŭ mi.

28 Kaj tion dirinte, li ekiris antaŭe, suprenirante al Jerusalem.
(English)
2 Maccabees 7:1, 20-31 (Douay-Rheims)

1. It came to pass also, that seven brethren, together with their mother, were apprehended, and compelled by the king to eat swine's flesh against the law, for which end they were tormented with whips and scourges.

20 Now the mother was to be admired above measure, and worthy to be remembered by good men, who beheld her seven sons slain in the space of one day, and bore it with a good courage, for the hope that she had in God:

21 And she bravely exhorted every one of them in her own language, being filled with wisdom; and joining a man's heart to a woman's thought,

22 she said to them: I know not how you were formed in my womb; for I neither gave you breath, nor soul, nor life, neither did I frame the limbs of every one of you.

23 But the Creator of the world, that formed the nativity of man, and that found out the origin of all, he will restore to you again, in his mercy, both breath and life, as now you despise yourselves for the sake of his laws.

24 Now Antiochus, thinking himself despised, and withal despising the voice of the upbraider, when the youngest was yet alive, did not only exhort him by words, but also assured him with an oath, that he would make him a rich and a happy man, and, if he would turn from the laws of his fathers, would take him for a friend, and furnish him with things necessary.

25 But when the young man was not moved with these things, the king called the mother, and counselled her to deal with the young man to save his life.

26 And when he had exhorted her with many words she promised that she would counsel her son.

27 So bending herself towards him, mocking the cruel tyrant, she said in her own language: My son have pity upon me, that bore you nine months in my womb, and gave you suck three years, and nourished you, and brought you up unto this age.

28 I beseech you, my son, look upon heaven and earth, and all that is in them, and consider that God made them out of nothing, and mankind also:

29 So you shall not fear this tormentor, but being made a worthy partner with your brethren, receive death, that in that mercy I may receive you again with your brethren.

30 While she was yet speaking these words, the young man said: For whom do you stay? I will not obey the commandment of the king, but the commandment of the law which was given us by Moses.

31 But you that have been the author of all mischief against the Hebrews, shall not escape the hand of God.

Luke 19:11-28 (Bible in Basic English)

11 And while they were giving ear to these words, he made another story for them, because he was near Jerusalem, and because they were of the opinion that the kingdom of God was coming straight away.

12 So he said, A certain man of high birth went into a far-away country to get a kingdom for himself, and to come back.

13 And he sent for ten of his servants and gave them ten pounds and said to them, Do business with this till I come.

14 But his people had no love for him, and sent representatives after him, saying, We will not have this man for our ruler.

15 And when he came back again, having got his kingdom, he gave orders for those servants to whom he had given the money to come to him, so that he might have an account of what business they had done.

16 And the first came before him, saying, Lord, your pound has made ten pounds.

17 And he said to him, You have done well, O good servant: because you have done well in a small thing you will have authority over ten towns.

18 And another came, saying, Your pound has made five pounds.

19 And he said, You will be ruler over five towns.

20 And another came, saying, Lord, here is your pound, which I put away in a cloth;

21 Because I was in fear of you, for you are a hard man: you take up what you have not put down, and get in grain where you have not put seed.

22 He said to him, By the words of your mouth you will be judged, you bad servant. You had knowledge that I am a hard man, taking up what I have not put down and getting in grain where I have not put seed;

23 Why then did you not put my money in a bank, so that when I came I would get it back with interest?

24 And he said to the others who were near, Take the pound away from him, and give it to the man who has ten.

25 And they say to him, Lord, he has ten pounds.

26 And I say to you that to everyone who has, more will be given, but from him who has not, even what he has will be taken away.

27 And as for those who were against me, who would not have me for their ruler, let them come here, and be put to death before me.

28 And when he had said this, he went on in front of them, going up to Jerusalem.

Nombro de ĉinaj studentoj in Usono kreskis


















(Esperanto)
1. Laŭ la jarraporto publikigita de la usona Internacia Asocio pri Edukado en la 14a de novembro,

2. en la studjaro de 2010 ĝis 2011 la nombro de ĉinaj studentoj en Usono kreskis je 22% pli ol tiu de la antaŭa studjaro,

3. kaj la nombro de la studentoj atingis 158 mil.

4. Ĉinujo jam fariĝis la dua fontlando de studentoj en Usono.

Raportas Xiong Linping
Ĉina Radio Internacia
(English)
1. According to the year-report published by the US International Association for Education on the 14th of November,

2. In the study-year from 2010 to 2011 the number of Chinese students in the United States grew by 22% more than the previous study-year,

3. and the number of students reached 158,000.

4. China now becomes the second source-land of students in the United States.

Respublikana Partio (Usono)

Respublikaj Usonaj Prezidentoj: Nixon, Ford, Lincoln, GHW Bush, Reagan, GW Bush, Eisenhower, Roosevelt




(Esperanto)
1. La Respublikana Partio aŭ G. O. P. (Granda Olda Partio) estas unu el la du ĉefaj politikaj partioj de Usono.

2. La Respublika Partio estis fondita je 1854. Ĝi estis kontraŭsklavisma partio.

3. En la nuna tempo, la Respublika Partio estas partio kontraŭ abortigo kaj favore de geedzeco.

4. La unua Respublika prezidento estis Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln liberigis la sklavojn.

5. Ronald Reagan ankaŭ estis Respublika prezidento.

6. La simbolo de la Respublika Partio estas elefanto. La ne-oficiala koloro de la partio estas ruĝa.

'Republican Party' en Conservapedia (angla)
(English)
1. The Republican Party or G. O. P. (Grand Old Party) is one of the two major political parties of the United States.

2. The Republican Party was founded in 1854. It was an anti-slavery party.

3. Today, the Republican Party is against abortion and in favor of marriage.

4. The first Republican president was Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln freed the slaves.

5. Ronald Reagan also was a Republican president.

6. The symbol of the Republican Party is an elephant. The unofficial color of the party is red.


Elefanto - La Respublikana simbolo

Monday, November 14, 2011

Biblia Legado: 15 Nov. 2011

(Esperanto)

Luko 19:1-10
1 Kaj li eniris en Jeriĥon kaj ĝin trapasis.

2 Kaj jen viro, nomata Zakĥeo; kaj li estis ĉefimpostisto, kaj li estis riĉa.

3 Kaj li penis vidi Jesuon, kia homo li estas; kaj li ne povis pro la homamaso, ĉar li estis malgranda je staturo.

4 Kaj antaŭkurinte antaŭen, li supreniris sur sikomorarbon, por lin vidi; ĉar li estis preterpasonta tie.

5 Kaj kiam Jesuo venis al la loko, li suprenrigardis, kaj diris al li:Zakĥeo, rapide malsupreniru, ĉar hodiaŭ mi devas loĝi en via domo.

6 Kaj li rapide malsupreniris, kaj akceptis lin ĝoje.

7 Kaj vidinte, ĉiuj murmuris, dirante:Ĉe pekulo li eniris, por gasti.

8 Kaj Zakĥeo, starante, diris al la Sinjoro:Jen duonon de miaj posedaĵoj, Sinjoro, mi donacas al la malriĉuloj; kaj se el iu mi maljuste eldevigis ion, mi redonas kvaroblon.

9 Kaj Jesuo diris al li:Hodiaŭ venis savo al ĉi tiu domo, ĉar li ankaŭ estas filo de Abraham.

10 Ĉar la Filo de homo venis, por serĉi kaj savi la perditaĵon.

2 Makabeoj 6:18-31

18 Eleazar, unu el la plej gravaj skribistoj, viro de alta aĝo kaj kun nobla aspekto, estis devigita malfermi la buŝon por manĝi porkaĵon.

19 Sed li preferis morti en gloro ol vivi en malhonoro kaj libervole ekiris al la torturejo.

20 Li elkraĉis la viandon. Tiel devus fari ĉiuj, kiuj rezistas manĝi tion, kion manĝi estas malpermesite – eĉ ne pro amo al la kara vivo.

21 Tiuj, al kiuj oni konfidis la gvidadon de la kontraŭleĝa oferbankedo, prenis lin flanken, ĉar ili jam konis lin delonge, kaj provis persvadi lin, ke li alportigu viandon, kiun li rajtas manĝi: li eĉ mem preparu ĝin, se li nur konsumu ĝin, ŝajnigante, ke li plenumas la ordonon de la reĝo, manĝante el la oferviando.

22 Se tion li farus, li eskapus la morton, sed pro la malnova amikeco, kiu ilin ligis, ili traktus lin afable.

23 Sed li prenis noblan decidon, indan je lia aĝo kaj decan je la aŭtoritato de lia maljuneco, indan je liaj grizaj haroj kaj je la ekzempleca vivo, kiun li vivis de frua juneco, kaj super ĉio je la sankta leĝo, kiun ordonis Dio mem. Konkorde al tio li tuj respondis: Sendu min senprokraste al la Hadeso.

24 Ĉar ŝajnigo ne konvenas al nia aĝo. Multe da junaj homoj povus ekpensi, ke la naŭdekjara Eleazar alprenis fremdajn kutimojn.

25 Kaj per mia trompo, por savi kelkajn mizerajn momentojn de mia vivo, mi povus erarigi ilin, kaj mi kovrus min per honto kaj malhonoro.

26 Kaj se mi eĉ evitus pormomente la punon de homoj, nek viva nek morta mi eskapos la manojn de la Ĉiopovanto.

27 Tial prefere mi do kuraĝe redonos mian vivon; tiam mi montros min inda je mia maljuneco

28 kaj al la junuloj mi havigos noblan ekzemplon de bela morto, libervola kaj grandanima, por nia respektinda kaj sankta leĝo. Tion dirinte li tuj ekiris al la torturejo.

29 Tiuj, kiuj kondukis lin, pro liaj paroloj, kiujn ili opiniis frenezaĵo, nun ŝanĝis sian ĵusan bonvolemon en malamon.

30 Senkompate bastonita ĝismorte, suspirante li diris: La Sinjoro scias en sia sankta scio, ke mi povis eviti la morton. Kvankam mia korpo terure suferas la bastonadon, tamen mia animo volonte toleras tion, ĉar mi timas Dion.

31 Tiel li lasis per sia morto ne nur al la junuloj, sed al la plimulto de sia popolo ekzemplon de inda karaktero kaj memoraĵon de virto.
(Basic English)

Luke 19:1-10
1 And he went into Jericho, and when he was going through it,

2 A man, named Zacchaeus, who was the chief tax-farmer, and a man of wealth,

3 Made an attempt to get a view of Jesus, and was not able to do so, because of the people, for he was a small man.

4 And he went quickly in front of them and got up into a tree to see him, for he was going that way.

5 And when Jesus came to the place, looking up, he said to him, Zacchaeus, be quick and come down, for I am coming to your house today.

6 And he came down quickly, and took him into his house with joy.

7 And when they saw it, they were all angry, saying, He has gone into the house of a sinner.

8 And Zacchaeus, waiting before him, said to the Lord, See, Lord, half of my goods I give to the poor, and if I have taken anything from anyone wrongly, I give him back four times as much.

9 And Jesus said to him, Today salvation has come to this house, for even he is a son of Abraham.

10 For the Son of man came to make search for those who are wandering from the way, and to be their Saviour.

2 Maccabees 6:18-31 (Douay-Rheims version)
18 Eleazar one of the chief of the scribes, a man advanced in years, and of a comely countenance, was pressed to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.

19 But he, choosing rather a most glorious death than a hateful life, went forward voluntarily to the torment.

20 And considering in what manner he was to come to it, patiently bearing, he determined not to do any unlawful things for the love of life.

21 But they that stood by, being moved with wicked pity, for the old friendship they had with the man, taking him aside, desired that flesh might be brought which it was lawful for him to eat, that he might make as if he had eaten, as the king had commanded, of the flesh of the sacrifice:

22 That by so doing he might be delivered from death; and for the sake of their old friendship with the man, they did him this courtesy.

23 But he began to consider the dignity of his age, and his ancient years, and the inbred honour of his grey head, and his good life and conversation from a child; and he answered without delay, according to the ordinances of the holy law made by God, saying, that he would rather be sent into the other world.

24 For it does not become our age, said he, to dissemble: whereby many young persons might think that Eleazar, at the age of fourscore and ten years, had gone over to the life of the heathens:

25 And so they, through my dissimulation, and for a little time of a corruptible life, should be deceived, and hereby I should bring a stain and a curse upon my old age.

26 For though, for the present time, I should be delivered from the punishments of men, yet should I not escape the hand of the Almighty neither alive nor dead.

27 Wherefore, by departing manfully out of this life, I shall show myself worthy of my old age:

28 And I shall leave an example of fortitude to young men, if with a ready mind and constancy I suffer an honourable death, for the most venerable and most holy laws. And having spoken thus, he was forthwith carried to execution.

29 And they that led him, and had been a little before more mild, were changed to wrath for the words he had spoken, which they thought were uttered out of arrogancy.

30 But when he was now ready to die with the stripes, he groaned: and said: O Lord, who have the holy knowledge, you know manifestly that whereas I might be delivered from death, I suffer grievous pains in body: but in soul am well content to suffer these things, because I fear you.

31 Thus did this man die, leaving not only to young men, but also to the whole nation, the memory of his death, for an example of virtue and fortitude.

Learning Esperanto through the Bible: Eliro 20:12, -o, -in, familio

Lesson 1: nouns

"Respektu vian patron kaj vian patrinon." Eliro 20:12

"Give honour to your father and to your mother." Exodus 20:12, Bible in Basic English

"Honour thy father and thy mother." Exodus 20:12, Douay-Rheims version


This is the start of a series of about 10 lessons that cover the most important parts of Esperanto for the absolute beginner.

The Bible verse for this lesson is about families, and so this lesson is about families. Many of the words we use when speaking of families are nouns. Nouns are words which are the names of people or things: father, dog, couch, television, and apple are all nouns.

Esperanto, like English, has nouns. But there is something special about Esperanto nouns. They are always marked by the suffix -o. Sometimes there are other suffixes coming after the -o, but the -o is always there.

Esperanto words consist of parts which are put together. There are roots, and there are suffixes and prefixes to add to those roots. Here are some word roots we will need to talk about families: patr, fil, frat, av. In order to use the words, we have to add a suffix to show what part-of-speech it is: whether it is a noun, verb, adjective or adverb.

Adding the -o to these roots, we get:
patro - father (think of 'paternal')
filo - son (think of 'filial')
frato - brother (think of 'fraternity')
avo - grandfather
familio - family

Here are some more general nouns about people:
viro - man
knabo - boy
infano - child (male or female)
bebo - baby (male or female)

In order to make any sentences in Esperanto, we are going to need a verb. The first verb we will learn is 'estas', which means 'is' or 'are'. Here are some Esperanto sentences:

Patro estas viro. = A father is a man.
Filo estas knabo. = A son is a boy.
Frato estas infano. = A brother is a child.
Avo estas viro. = A grandfather is a man.

You will see from these examples that Esperanto does not have a word for 'a' or 'an'. These little words are called 'the indefinite article'. Since Esperanto does not have an indefinite article, the word 'viro' can mean 'man' or 'a man'.

There is another kind of article in English: the definite article. The definite article in English is 'the'. Esperanto does have a definite article, 'la'. Let's use the definite article in some sentences:

La bebo estas frato. = The baby is a brother.
La infano estas knabo. = The child is a boy.
La viro estas la patro. = The man is the father.
La avo estas patro. = The grandfather is a father.

You will notice that our familio words lack the feminine touch. There is an easy way to add that feminine touch--- with the suffix -in, which turns any noun into a feminine noun. Here are our words in feminine form:

patrino = mother
filino = daughter
fratino = sister
avino = grandmother
virino = woman
knabino = girl
infanino = girl child
bebino = girl baby

A very useful word in Esperanto is the word 'kaj', which means 'and.' The 'aj' is pronounced like the 'y' in 'sky'.

patro kaj patrino = father and mother
filo kaj filino = son and daughter
frato kaj fratino = brother and sister
avo kaj avino = grandfather and grandmother
viro kaj virino = man and woman
knabo kaj knabino = boy and girl
infano kaj infanino = child and girl-child
bebo kaj bebino = baby and girl-baby
Patro kaj patrino kaj infano estas familio. = Father and mother and child are a family.

Pronunciation of vowel sounds: The five vowels are a, e, i, o, and u. In Esperanto they are pronounced as follows:
a as the 'a' in father
e as the 'e' in bet
i as the 'ee' in see
o as the 'o' in role
u as the 'oo' in boot

When you read the new words of the lesson out loud, be sure and pronounce the vowels carefully.

The Bible verse: 'Respektu' comes from the word for 'respect'. The '-u' on the end shows that it is a verb being used as a command or request. The Esperanto word for 'your' is 'via', from the word 'vi', which means 'you.'. You will notice that the words 'patro' and 'patrino' have a letter -n at the end. This -n is added to a noun which is the object of a sentence--- the person or thing being acted on by the verb of the sentence. In the sentence "Respektu vian patron kaj vian patrinon," the verb is 'respektu'. Who are you to 'respektu'? Your father and mother-- 'vian patron kaj patrinon'.

If you have a copy of the book 'Step by Step in Esperanto' by Montagu C. Butler, which I very much recommend, the numbered sections to read with today's lesson are: 10, 6, 15, 17, 13, 32 and 2.

Meditation: Some of us are blessed with good mothers and fathers, who teach us, guide us and protect us. Others have less-good mothers and fathers, who may not have been very responsible in their treatment of us or in their behavior generally. And a few people have perfectly dreadful mothers and fathers who mistreat them or even try to kill them for the insurance money!

But God doesn't say 'honor the GOOD mothers and fathers.' He wants you to honor YOURS. Even the worst parents sacrifice themselves for their children sometimes. They go through childbirth, they give up time and money to provide us with food and diapers, and in that way they reflect God's work in giving us life. It is the image of God as father that we are asked to honor by honoring our father and mother.

Of course for those who have suffered by having a homicidal parent, that honoring is done best by staying well away from the parent in question and praying for him. In that way we are denying a wicked parent the chance to sin against us yet again.

Loving parents, however imperfect, are God's plan for young children, to help them grow up physically and emotionally healthy. Respecting your parents is your way to show them that the work they did raising you is something you value.

Exercises:
1. Read the Esperanto Bible verse aloud seven times each day.
2. Practice reading the Esperanto words and sentences aloud. Memorize each word with its meaning.
3. Construct 10 Esperanto sentences using the words in this lesson.
4. If possible, obtain a copy of the book 'Step by Step in Esperanto'. The Esperanto association in your country may stock it, or you may try Amazon.com.